American Bul Dog ShapeBoth British and the American bulldog are very nice looking dogs with lots of positive characteristics. However, there are certain differences and if you plan to get a dog for yourself, make sure you go through all of them in order to make the right choice.

If you prefer being inside the house and just want a company and a protection then a British bulldog is a better choice. On the other hand, If you like to take long walks and spend more time outdoors, American bulldog would be a perfect fit.

The more you match the temperament of the dog, the better you will get along and there will be no frustration, just spending a nice time with your furry friend.

British Bulldog

British or English Bulldogs are considered to be a classic type. Its head is large, droopy and wrinkly. Their legs are short.

Their weight varies, but they are in most cases around fifty pounds. British Bulldogs are very brave and defend their master at any cost.  They are excellent guard dogs and seeing them any intruder would run. If you need this kind of protection then this is the breed for you. Their main physical characteristics are:

  • Their skin hangs of their neck
  • They are famous for their pushed in snout
  • The shoulders are broad
  • The neck is wide and short
  • Their coat can be fawn, red, white or the combination of these
  • They are sensitive to high temperatures.

American Bulldog

The American bulldog is a utility dog and there are two types: classic and standard, as well as the mix of the two. It is a very strong dog with a smooth and short hair, with a very masculine body.

They are famous for their drooling. Their weight goes from sixty to hundred and twenty pounds, but there are definitely dogs with greater weight than this. Even though they look dangerous, they are actually friendly and great for families.

They are very active and confident but tend to be emotional. American bulldog can be great with kids, especially when they spend their time with them from the very beginning. Investing time and efforts to train them gives great results so they can be easily controlled in every situation.

They can leap 6 feet high or even more than that. There are certain standards for the way the American bulldog looks like:

  • Eye color can vary, but black is preferred, especially if the dog is white
  • The nose can be grizzle, brown or red
  • The lips should not be too loose
  • The front legs are straight, strong and heavy boned
  • The tail is small, set low, it is thick close to the body and then gets narrowed
  • The coat can be white, tan, red, brown, piebald and fawn.

The reason American bulldog is so popular is their loyalty. They are very brave and reliable. Once they get attached to their master, they tend to be very protective.

British Bulldog

Main differences between British and American bulldogs

When it comes to the appearance, British bulldogs are generally shorter and are known for their wrinkly faces. On the other hand, American bulldogs can be easily spotted and recognized because they are taller, have longer legs and are very active.

If you need a working dog, then American bulldog is the right choice, while British bulldogs are known as lapdogs. Both of these breeds tend to react with certain aggressive behavior towards unknown dogs and this is very important to remember in order to avoid any possible problems.

British bulldogs enjoy more to spend time in the house and they do not require lots of space, while American breeds tend to spend more time outside and they need more exercises daily. The lifespan of American bulldogs is longer.

After carefully reading all the characteristics, it won’t be much trouble to choose. Both breeds look wonderful and are very useful, but make a wise choice. Not only you will be happy, but the dog will be grateful. Buying a dog that wants to be outside while you enjoy watching movies can be a real torture for both.

Supplements, Foods and Fitness Course

Many guys are still confused if supplements for fitness, foods and workout enhancement formulated for humans can go well for their bulldogs, or not?

Even I have witnessed many funny times Bulldog owners desire their lovely pets develop more muscular body and unnatural beastly power. Then, the question I often asked them: Aren’t your dog already naturally endowed with these traits by nature?

If you ask me it is not necessary to give these fantastic pets unnatural stuff, even the safest and legal muscle mass and bigger size supplements may not be necessary at all.

You should toy same pedigree with your Bulldog’s foods and fitness routine. Nothing unnatural that may harm these awesome little beasts.…


A proper emotional connection can be now created in between humans and their pets. This connection will enable them understanding each other well. This connection can be created only with the help of professional pet-training.

Your pets will soon develop a controlled behavior and timid by leaving back unwanted arrogance and wildness. Thus, masters and their family members will remain safe, and they will never get attacked by their pets ever.

Communication or interaction between humans and pets can be now effectively improved by introducing specialized pet-trainings.The pets can now lead a happy life by making necessary adjustments with humans. This sense of adjustment can be developed only from high-end pet-training.

How To Improve Pet-Health?

Pet’s Health

You have to collect the list of the healthiest foods that can be fed to your pets for inviting amazing health, strength, and energy. A specific diet-chart needs to be maintained depending on height, weight, and type of pets. The best pet-dietician usually creates this diet-chart on the basis of the current health condition of your pets.

Health-Care Tips

The foods should be fed at specific schedules on a regular basis. This will help in maintaining the best appetitive of our pets and will also prevent indigestion troubles. Moreover, bowel-system of your pets will also get nicely controlled with scheduled food-timing.

Healthy And Fit Condition

You should take your pets for walks especially during morning or evening time so that they can be maintained in a healthy and fit condition. In fact, regular walking will keep them active and energetic as a result of which lethargy will be kicked out.

Pet Owners

If you love your pets and consider them as your dearest beings, then you should take up the responsibility of caring them well. Pet-health is quite a great concern for pet-owners these days.

Pets Healthy

If you think taking your pets regularly to vet’s clinic is the only thing that will make your pets healthy, then you are wrong. You also need to add some sincere efforts for making your pets healthier,

Pets Clean

energetic and strong. You should keep your pets clean all the time by bathing them nicely. You should use special accessories that are safe and hygienic for your pets.

Tuscon CPA Dog Breeder

If you are a pet dog owner, it is necessary that you should be accountable to knowing how to look after your dog. You should know when to be at your dogs side and make him a loving companion and offer protection when the need arises.

Your dogs requirement are not too much a complication that you shouldn’t be able to take care of even when working as a Tucson Certified Public Accountant, puppies first home visits requires lots of love and attention although, they might be a little stressed during there first time at home but this should be because of the separation from there mother and their litter-mates


Its important to quickly start the process of socializing, and incorporating your new pet into your family and teaching him to relate with other animals through gentle interaction and having a good experience with other members of the family including other pets.

One thing to avoid during your pups first home visit is a sudden loud noise for example door slamming or kids screaming. Also you need to curtail the visitors your pets has but gradually permitting it to get used to more strange faces as the day goes by.

Make Sure Your Puppy is Sleeping Comfortably

you can make for your puppy in the absence of warm comfortable bed a cardboard box staked with several newspaper and covered with a washable blanket and make sure the box will still fit with your dog even as it grows

Make sure the position of your puppy bed will still be the same even when the dog is mature – typically the ideal place is a silent personal corner. For your pups first night – to settle in comfortably – make sure there are some fluffy toys and a warm water jar placed under your dogs bedding.

Sometimes your puppy could become very noisy at night following separation from litter mate your best bet to soothe him down is to place a tickling clock close by or turn your radio to a very low volume.

During the day when the puppy is awake make sure he gets lots of body contact and make sure you speak to your pup at a very gentle tone and you use your gruff voice when you want to disapprove of action

for the coming of a brand new puppy The following are items to consider.

Dispose dangerous household and garden chemicals. –

Make sure that electrical cords are far from reach of your puppy and be extra careful when using skateboards, lawnmowers or some other similar items – and also make sure that the swimming pool fences are made in such a way that it will not allow the puppy to pass through.

Make sure your puppy knows that you are the leader

and you should teach him some house rules; its when the puppy really knows its place in the house that it will be able to obey command.


The pup nutritional need needs not change from what its used to when you first got it so it will not cause digestive upset. You need to feed your pup the same diet it ate before you brought it home, however, you can introduce industrial pet food later on.

You also need to constantly provide fresh clean water with probably a stainless steel or a earthenware bowl to keep the water cooler and during summer you could add some ice into the water

Play Moments  With your Puppy.

The more you allow your puppy to play the more it grows and learn. When they are still with there litter mate the play is more like their daily exercise and also a way to compete to know their order in the pack. make sure you are not too rough with your puppy during play but also make sure that during this early stages your puppy learn how important your family is in the house

Puppies could be so annoying with chewing everything that comes there way, although chewing helps puppies through teething, it also is a moment for exploring their environment that is why it is important that you get your puppy toys and objects to keep it happy.

Potty Training

As a busy Tuscon CPA you need to always anticipate your puppy toilet requirement like taking your puppy outside when its warm up or when your puppy is about to eat or after meal. take the puppy to a particular area of the house where you want to use as its toilet and settle it there to complete the poo.

Exercising your puppy is also a big requirement for dog owners – just like adult dogs puppies also need to take some walk in the park and this should be done regularly and if regularly seems a bit difficult make sure you walk your puppy at least four times every week.

At times you might think your puppy don’t need some types of grooming, but you have to do them anyways. Your grooming box should have within it a dog brush and a comb and you need to set a daily routine where you check your pups mouth, teeth, abdomen, ears, eyes etc apart from daily grooming, another important task is to make sure you wash your dog so it wont get smelly or dirty.

Also note that you need to add some dog shampoo and use lukewarm water when bathing your puppy. and for drying, you need a unique dog towel to dry up the body. Your puppy’s nail should be of concern as you need to trim it regularly. you can talk to your vet or dog groomers about some of these grooming kits for dogs.

These tips when followed properly will ensure that you, your family and your newly added member of the family will have a happy time bonding together.…

senior dog vitamins

glucosamine for dogsYou are already doing all you can to ensure your puppy is healthy and in a good shape. A proper diet, vet visits, and a proper diet are at the top of your list. However, you are still not sure whether you should start giving supplements to your puppy. Are supplements necessary for the good health of a puppy or are they harmful?

To begin with, nutritionists argue that the pet foods we have in the market contain already essential nutrients and therefore, meet all the dietary requirements your puppy needs. They see no need to give them additional supplements. A good tip for ensuring your puppy gets a healthy diet is formulating the pet food at home and adding multi-vitamins. However, consult your vet beforehand to see whether this is a viable option.

Supplements may cause harm to your puppies because they only come in the minimal recommended amounts. This is dangerous because we are not aware of the optimal level of a nutrient, and thus can end up giving a puppy more nutrients than required. Studies are still being conducted, reason why there is still very insufficient data available in the market.

Despite the fact that pet foods are formulated to meet all the dietary requirements, chances are your puppy eats the same thing every day. This can work for your puppy or not because as much as manufacturers leave out the need for supplements, brands are different. The nutrients in each brand vary and you may be giving pet food with minimal vitamins to your puppy.

Some pet companies use diagnostic testing before selling their food to pet owners. They test out their manufactured food with dogs to see how they respond to the nutrients in a given period of time.  However, very few companies actually go through this process to develop a balanced diet, and it will go on and sell untested products. These may cause harm to puppies in the long run.

It’s important to read labels and understand what exactly you feed your puppy. If you are not satisfied with the added nutrients, consult a vet and buy additional supplements. However, if your pet food seems to satisfy all the dietary requirements, there is no need for extra nutrients.

Nutritionists are quick to add that there can be one major exception to using supplements. Puppies naturally produce their own vitamin C under normal conditions. However, if stressed, they don’t produce enough doses which may warrant supplements to be administered.joint supplements for dogs

There are other supplements which vets may recommend from time to time. This includes fish oil, glucosamine, and anti-oxidants. Despite the fact that these supplements could have positive effects on a puppy, there is minimal proof that they actually work in enhancing the health a puppy’s health.

The good news is, supplements can still slow down effects caused by some subclinical problems in puppies. This will save you so much money in the long run, in terms of vet trips and bills.

Puppies, just like humans, are different. What works for your puppy, may not work for another one. This only means that although we want the best for our pets, we should not give them every supplement we find in the market. Always consult a vet before making any decisions that may affect the quality of your puppy’s life. Moreover, as you make your decision, keep in mind that supplements can be quite costly, and there is still no documented proof that they enhance a puppy’s health.…

Dogs HealthBeing a dog owner means taking care of your dog every way possible. It is like having one more family member. Regular visits to the veterinarian will help you get a clear picture of the potential health problems your dog may have.

If you have any doubts, asking a veterinarian will surely provide some helpful advice and guide you in the right direction. Regular vaccination is necessary in order to protect your dog from viruses and infections. Create a vaccination schedule and follow it through.

Choose the Right Food

Dogs cannot eat just any food. Choosing the one with plenty of nutrients appropriate for the age of your dog will surely have a positive impact not only on the health but also the way he looks. His hair will be shiner and he will be ready to play. You can conclude a lot by just looking at the way that he behaves.

If he starts avoiding meals and looks sad, he may not be taking enough nutrients from the food he consumes on regular basis. Try replacing it with some other or even including a supplement, of course only after consulting with a veterinarian.Dog supplements

Provide Plenty of Exercises

Spending lots of time in the apartment without the necessary amount of time outside will surely result in one unhappy and fat dog. He may start making a mess at home since there is so much energy that needs to be used somewhere. It is better to go every day for at least an hour or two to take a walk or to a playground than to risk all kinds of dog health problems and have broken things around the house.

Besides, regular exercising will increase your dog’s stamina and keep him fit. Spending some time with your dog outside can be beneficial in so many ways. Your dog will be much happier and healthier and the fresh air will contribute to the quality of his sleep.

It is always good to educate yourself concerning the breed of your dog. Not all dogs are the same and their needs vary. Some dogs health problems may be with bones, some with seizures, while others may be prone to having weight problems. Minor changes that you can implement according to the information you get may be extremely helpful to your dog so you can enjoy many good and healthy years together.…

Dogs Fopr Sale

Dog BreederWhen it comes to buying a bulldog puppy from a breeder, there are some signs that will tell you more about the way he is taking care of the puppies and the way he is doing business. A serious and professional dog breeder will make sure that the puppies are healthy, clean and vaccinated.

  1. Healthy Looking Puppies

When buying a puppy, take a good look how it looks. If its coat is shiny and the puppy looks well fed and happy, then you can be sure that they are taken care of.  Taking good care of the puppy’s health is a priority.

  1. Dog Lover

You can see when someone is having puppies just for sales and when they actually care for animals. True dog lover can be recognized almost instantly. When running this kind of business, this is an absolute necessity.

  1. Very High Cleanliness Level

Dogs can sometimes get very dirty. Professional dog breeder will make sure that the cleanliness is on the absolutely highest level. Cleaning their room couple of times a day is absolutely necessary.

  1. Proper Documentation

When buying a puppy, you will need proper documents that say more about its parents, breed, date of birth and vaccination. Not having these information means that there are some unclear things and that you may not be buying what you are being told to.

  1. Kind Person

Even though you may not think about this one, but this is also very important. Someone who is professional will want to make the exchange as pleasant as possible. People buy dogs because they are absolutely in love with these wonderful beings and it is something like a special occasion. A breeder who knows this will always be in business.

Healthy dog breedAlways ask your friends for a recommendation when it comes to finding a breeder. Good voice travels fast, it is always better to buy a dog from a trusted breeder than to take a risk and buy a puppy that may be having some health problems, particularly if you want him for your children.


Teach Puppy To Walk Quickly

Puppy Walking On A Leach

Dogs, who doesn’t love them?

Touted as man’s best friend, dogs have long been side by side with humans already aiding them in everything in accordance to world’s ancestors’ original ill for domesticating wolves and wild dogs. As time passed and different breeds were created, dogs perfectly intertwined with the human race’s culture and in no time earned the title of companion and best friend.

Dogs are everywhere now from police stations to shows and, as the social media landscape expands, dog videos are also now posted everywhere on Facebook, Twitter, and pretty much anywhere.

Nowadays, dog serve various causes such as for the field of security, mental therapy, or just for the love of it. Fluffy, Shaggy, Cuddly, Athletic, Short, Tall, you name it; there is a dog to complement each person and your English bulldog is a relative of the American Bulldog. English Bulldogs are known to be very great guard dogs due to their intimidating facial features, broad shoulders, and overall buff physique.

With the changing times caused by the emergence of the social media affecting basically anything in this world, dogs are not spared, in a good way though as the social media has raised awareness for various dog-related causes.

For example, recently the social media world clamored to raise awareness for leaving dogs alone inside cars since, according to research, this can be really bad for your dog as the temperature can aggravate its health both physically and mentally. This and many more advocacies have been circling the world now to informing people and keep man’s best friends comfortable.

Puppy Walking On A LeashWith that said, it is a known fact that dogs can be sensitive too and the smallest things could and should matter; small things like teaching your British Bulldog puppy how to walk on a leash. Teaching your puppy how to walk on a leash is a crucial step to instill good discipline with the dog while it is young while the skill itself can be really for taking out your dog as some establishments would require you to use a leash.


Start with the Collar and the Leash

Introduce your puppy to his, her first collar and make sure that it is a comfortable one. Having a comfortable collar is a crucial step in teaching your puppy how to walk on a leash as anything that would discomfort your dog could be a setback. With how the neck skin of British Bulldogs is, this can be quite tricky.

Look for any signs of discomfort through your dog’s body language and overall attitude, also, it would be best to consult bulldog experts as to what collar to use.

The same principle of comfort would be needed when finding a leash also. Make sure that your leash could be carried well by the dog comfortably and without having him/her exert much effort. Fortunately, if the British Bulldog’s bulky skin could work against you when picking a collar, their large and strong physique could really work well in finding a leash since you would not bother looking for the lightest one you could find (although you may want to find a strong one).

Once you have a good comfortable collar and leash for your puppy and he/she has settled with it on its neck already, you may now to dive in to the more direct parts of teaching your dog how to leash.


Your First Steps

Teaching your dog how to walk on a leash could take some time, maybe a few months even. The first few walks are very crucial since your dog’s curiosity would be off the charts and he/she will tend to wander around. Keep your walk sessions fun to instill a good image inside him/her that you are fun to be with outside.

You would want your leash to be loose and not stretched since a stretched one would means one of you is either pulling too much. Remember how you potty trained your dog? Well, the good old praises and rewarding tricks could come in handy also so make sure to give your boy/girl a treat if he/she is walking on a loose leash.


Handling the Attitude

Somewhere along the way you would be encountering a certain problem that most owners did also, especially for British Bulldogs. Due to the British Bulldogs having quite a temper, they could refuse to walk at times. This is perfectly normal for their breed so do not feel down about it because you can actually do something.

Spark the excitement back in your dog, play games on your backyard and take him to new places that may ignite the curiosity in him/her again. Play fetch or practice your calls in your house and give him treats to ensure that he/she remembers that walking would give him/her a quick snack.


Follow Through

As time progresses and as your puppy grows to be a disciplined dog who would always be beside you, you could start letting go of the leash when walking out. Make sure to regularly walk out with your dog, run if you may and spice things up sometimes like racing with your dog if you can. British Bulldogs do have quite the attitude but if you constantly pay attention to regularly walking your dog and making sure it is fun for him/her, it would not be much of a problem.


Final TipsMake Puppy Start Walking Fast

As mentioned, learning how to walk on a leash is a handy skill for your dog but the walking part is something that you would want to focus on after. Due to their size and weight, British Bulldogs have a high tendency for arthritis and in order to prevent that, you must keep your dog healthy and always in good waling condition. Never overwork your dog and of course, head to the vet regularly.



Dog Massage


Is your bulldog close to a Burn Out?

Is your bulldog stressed out from all those daily activities?

If you’ve ever had a massage, then you know firsthand how great they can be. Your dog feels the same way – here are five reasons why you should be giving your dog a massage, if you aren’t already.


Reduce Stress

British bulldog massage is proven to reduce stress, and any dog can benefit from that. You might find it particularly helpful if your dog is easily worried or stressed; a nightly massage can help to relax him and establish a comforting routine.

Improve Circulation

The simple massaging of muscles improves blood circulation and this provide benefits to the entire body. Increased circulation helps with muscle recovery after exercise, and it can also help with conditions such as arthritis. The pressuring and the releasing of the muscles can elevate blood flow and it was found to heal and give benefits your dog’s entire body.


Strengthen Your Relationship 

British bulldog massage is a wonderful way to build and strengthen your relationship with your dog. Make it certain that you proceed softly at first, and as massage may somehow foreign to your dog. Chances are, once your dog realizes how good a massage feels, he’ll come to look forward to the treatment, and will associate you with being the one who provides it. Massage can be a big help in establishing the bond between the master and the dog, or it can build on an existing relationship with your pet.

Find Injuries or Problems

British Bulldog Massage  British bulldog massage has an added benefit in that it allows you to quickly pinpoint changes in your dog’s body. If the dog has this unusual swelling, or if the found that it has muscle problems, it will be recognized at once you’ve been doing the massage for him.

This can also help to keep you on the ball in terms of your dog’s weight and body condition. It’s not uncommon for a potentially cancerous lump to be detected early through a massage. You never know, pampering your dog might just save their life!


Relieve Pain

Finally, British bulldog massage can be an excellent pain reliever. After lots of exercise, your dog will find massage to be comforting and relaxing. If the dog is recovering injury, you can ask the vet on the proper way to do a massage In cases like this. Dogs with conditions like arthritis will also appreciate massage, since it can help to relax their muscles and release tense areas.

British bulldog massage is a wonderful technique to use on your bulldog. If you’re new to it, ask your vet to show you some techniques, or consider having a canine massage therapist work with you and your dog.

Not all people knew how exhausting it actually is to take care of an adorable little puppy. Your dog loves it when you pet him, rub his belly, and scratch behind his ears. But dogs, like humans, also love it when you give them massages. Though it may seem silly, it can actually give advantage to your pup. It feels good when you get a massage, right? Well, that feeling is the same for dogs.

A massage can relax her and give you another opportunity to connect and bond with your best friend. But those aren’t the only benefits. So the time you get home tonight, give him that massage and try to know how much he likes it. From there, you will get to know your puppy and get yourself oriented with him as well.


Raising Your BulldogA bulldog is an energetic, protective, confident, and loyal breeds of dogs worldly known for their strong will and, should belong to someone who is willing to work hard with them to establish a robust dominant role in the relationship.

Commonly known as English or British Bulldog, the bulldog is a medium-sized muscular breed of a dog with a distinctive pushed-in nose. They are known as the excellent family dog, and through decent socialization with people and other pets, they will remarkably be friendly with any person they come across.

However, they have to be appropriately raised to enjoy their services. Below are five useful ways you can use to grow your bulldog.

  1. Take care of your dog’s health

Like human beings, dogs are prone to health hazards that can immensely affect their performance and deteriorate their health. As a measure of ensuring that your dog is healthy, it is advisable that you vaccinate your dog against diseases such as rabies, hepatitis, parainfluenza, and parvovirus.

Puppies should receive a set of four injections every three weeks of age and then administer the same annually as adults based on a certified veterinary recommendations.

  1. Feed and groom your dog well

Feeding your dog with high quality food specifically meant for the bulldog breed will ensure that it maintains healthy bones and joints while growing. For puppies, always ensure that they remain on their diet until they are 18 months of age, where they are now considered adults and can gradually be introduced to adult food.

Find high-quality food that features meat as their first ingredient. This will provide your bulldog with the protein it needs and limit the amount of carbohydrates it consumes. The fiber content in your food should be four percent or less. Always provide your dog with sufficient amount of clean water and bathe it when necessary.

  1. Exercise your bulldog once or twice a day

Bulldogs are not known to be the lazy types of dogs that will lounge on the couch for a whole day without exercise. In this kind of situation, the dog may easily become overweight and lead to a variety of health complications such as diabetes and injuries to their hips and knees.

  1. Socialize your bulldog

Each dog species will develop their social skills at their own pace, so go as slow as need. Introduce it to cats, children and anything else you want your dog to be familiar and comfortable with as well. As your dog becomes more socialized and relaxed with new things, you will realize that it develops an overall good temper over such things.

Socialize your bulldog

  1. Train your bulldog

Bulldogs are generally intelligent, strong-willed and stubborn in nature hence the need to train them and trim their behavior and equip them with skills necessary for their presumed roles.  When trained well, bulldogs acquire the skills they need to judge a situation and decide when everything is fine or when they may need to act on their natural guarding instincts.

These are my recommendations for breeding Bulldogs and raising bulldog puppies.  Following these suggestions will help you grow as many healthy puppies as possible and make the experience as comfortable and enjoyable as possible for both your family and your bulldog.…

Pet-insurance mainly deals with pet-protection. Almost every pet-owner is currently taking this insurance for the safety of their pets. Value of pet’s life can be now effectively preserved by this specific type of insurance. Therefore, being a responsible pet-owner, you should know first that which conditions are being compensated nicely by this insurance.

Conditions fulfilled by pet-insurance:

  • Sick pets need to be treated medically, and this might involve great cost. The medical cost of pets can be now easily compensated by using pet-insurance plans. You just have to check out the list to get an idea that which medical costs of pets are getting compensated by the insurance. Severely ill or disease-attacked pets need to be treated with costly medical therapies and the expenses for these therapies can be compensated easily by this insurance.
  • Pets might get stolen, and this loss can be compensated only by pet-insurance plans. Though emotional compensation is not possible, you can surely receive financial compensation without any doubt.

Sometimes, pet-care or pet-maintenance expenses on a daily basis are also being fulfilled by this insurance. You got to choose the right plan as per requirement, preference, and budget.